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Contents:
  1. Vehicles, Air Pollution & Human Health | Union of Concerned Scientists
  2. What is a ‘Clean Title?’
  3. Personal Information
  4. Why Is There So Much Fast Food in Poor Urban Areas?
  5. Why Is Zambia So Poor?

To date, China has upgraded fuel quality and emission standards to a highly advanced level that exceeds that of many other developing countries. Since the implementation of motor vehicle emission standards during the first phase China I standard in , China has upgraded from China I to China V emission standards in 18 years. The full upgradation of the China V fuel standard was divided into two steps.

Second, in the rest of China, the goal was meant to be achieved by the end of Lin, According to the national standard committee, vehicle pollutant discharge would be significantly reduced after the implementation of China V in both fuel and emission standards. As expected, the consumption of China V gasoline will decrease roughly , tons of NOx emissions per year, while new cars can collectively reduce 90, tons of NOx emissions in five years Zhang, China V emission standard is equivalent to Europe 5 emission standards.

Vehicle emission assessment mileage is doubled in China V standard, and the emission control of the on-board diagnosis system is improved. Currently, the MEE has planned to implement the emissions standard at stage 6 China VI standard , which will not only follow European standards as before but also consider the experience of the US and California, in particular.

Specifically, China VI emission standard contains more stringent emission limits than those in the Europe 6 regulations and adds a real-world emission testing protocol and 48 h evaporation testing procedure, including diurnal and hot soak emissions Wu et al. Since , the MEE has released vehicle emission data every year.

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The government even held a press conference through a micro-blog to discuss the problem of air pollution. The unexpected rapid transparency of air quality data was welcomed by the Chinese people and international organizations Xinhua News Agency, Compiling such a list is conducive for understanding pollutant concentration and emission sources in the atmospheric environment, providing an important basis for the formulation of air pollutant emission reduction targets, and preparing an emergency plan for heavily polluted areas.

Air pollution associated with the booming expansion of vehicles market and consumption has already received increasing attention from the public. There is a range of rising pressures to control vehicle emissions in China due to many aspects such as the huge number of on-road vehicles, slow development of new energy vehicles, slow improvement of fuel, and overall shortage of efficient highway systems.

Thus, a variety of measures have been considered and implemented continually, which have temporarily yielded considerable achievements. To attain the long-term benefits of vehicle industry development and sound air quality, an integrated mechanism of social participation, technical revolution, and regulatory innovation in vehicles, fuel, and roads is suggested as follows. To achieve this goal, collaboration between the government, enterprises, and consumers is urgently required.


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For example, in the early s, the serious problem of illegally dumped scrapped vehicles troubled in Japan. It outlined the process of scrapping vehicles throughout the whole process of design, manufacture, and production Lu, Inevitably, if consumers are able to obtain a larger refund from the second-hand vehicle market or non-certified vehicle dismantling company, they would not want to sell scrap vehicles to a qualified vehicle dismantling company.

On the other hand, in order to enhance environmental inspections of in-use vehicles, governments should not only strengthen the regular inspection of vehicles at larger scale, but also encourage the public to public transportation more frequently. Emissions could be recorded as an important part of the annual check. Vehicles that are substandard on emissions should not be issued with a qualified environmental protection logo.

Vehicles, Air Pollution & Human Health | Union of Concerned Scientists

The environmental protection department should heavily punish owners with unmet emission standard vehicles. Moreover, it is quite important to further promote the development of new energy vehicles with significant policy support. For the long-term development of new energy vehicles, there is an increasing necessity for the enhanced cooperation and integration of different stakeholders.

The government could better guide and integrate funds and resources from society to develop core technologies for new energy vehicles. In other words, the government should cultivate an innovative and competitive environment for the new energy vehicle industry through flexible policies and effective cooperation between enterprises and other stakeholders. In addition, new energy vehicles should be addressed differently in car quota indicators and license quota auctions and be subsidized with lower parking fees.

Enterprises should bear more social responsibility and be encouraged to reform, especially for traditional nation-owned car companies.

China should further improve vehicle fuel standards in line with the national refinement of industry conditions. It is advised that the olefins, aromatics, and octane labels in gasoline should be established within a reasonable range to avoid excessive waste of industrial investment due to over-upgrading. Biofuel and other renewable energy could be used as alternative to vehicle fuel for mitigating air pollution.

Renewable clean fuels—for example, ethanol, bio-diesel, and other biofuels—should be promoted with long-term stability.

Particularly, non-plantation resource-based biofuel should receive more attention so that plantation resource-based biofuel may be developed with more caution due to the possible competition of land use with other sectors Hao et al. Compared with traditional fossil fuel, technology innovation is still the key to improving the market competitiveness of renewable energies. For the heavily polluted areas, the supervision and inspection of fuel quality throughout production and distribution should be further strengthened. In particular, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and other heavily polluted regions should implement more stringent measures to address the import and sale of substandard oil.

Furthermore, authorities should enhance in-situ checks on fuel production enterprises and gas stations, ensuring the punishment of illegal acts, and establishing blacklists of illegal enterprises to ensure that the punishment system is transparent Yang et al. Road network planning should be further optimized. In the planning of comprehensive transport, the connecting system of non-motorized lanes and public transportation should be designed to ensure sustainable development of urban traffic Yuan, The experiences of many large cities like Hong Kong could be good examples.

Hong Kong has begun to mitigate air pollution much earlier than cities in mainland China. Thus, the development of urban public transport systems with low carbon, high efficiency, and large capacity can adequately control the traffic volume, which will in turn mitigate air pollution. Frequent air pollution in many Chinese cities has mainly attributed to the rocketing number of vehicles on road. With an attempt to create a green, harmonious, and sustainable transportation system, an integrated mechanism of social participation, technical revolution, and regulatory innovation in vehicles, fuel, and roads has been highlighted.

It recommends more stringent emission standards in line with updated fuel standards, advanced new energy vehicles, and more reasonable and mature infrastructure-traffic systems. In recent years, the Chinese Government has made great efforts through a series of stringent and preventive measures, better mitigate vehicle emissions, and alleviate air pollution. Various endeavors from different stakeholders in the context of the rapidly increasing numbers of vehicles have yielded positive effects.

What is a ‘Clean Title?’

Even though new challenges are unavoidable in the implementation of stricter policies, China must establish measures that are more appropriate to address vehicle associated air pollution. Notably, China will continue to develop more stringent fuel and emission standards toward the effective control of vehicle induced air pollution and achieve long lasting social and environmental benefits from integrated mechanism and policies.

The authors would like to thank Dr. The authors would like to thank anonymous reviewers who greatly helped to improve the quality of the paper. There was no additional external funding received for this study. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Author Contributions Jin Wang and Hong Yang conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Qiong Huang authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft. Data Availability The following information was supplied regarding data availability:. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List PeerJ v. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. Hong Yang: moc. Received Sep 10; Accepted Apr 9. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. Associated Data Data Availability Statement The following information was supplied regarding data availability: This is a review paper and does not include any raw data or code.

Personal Information

Abstract China has been the largest vehicle market in the world since Keywords: Vehicle emission, Air pollution, PM2. Introduction Atmospheric pollution has emerged as one of the primary environmental issues in China and other developing countries. Survey Methodology Papers that were reviewed in this research were obtained in journal databases and subject-specific governmental and professional websites. Problems Explosive increase of vehicles and caused air pollution With the rapid development of Chinese economy and significant increases in traffic networks, the number of vehicles has grown at an alarming rate.

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Why Is There So Much Fast Food in Poor Urban Areas?

Figure 1. Vehicle sales volume and growth rate in China from to Figure 2. Figure 3. Road problem Unreasonable design of road systems The development of the auto industry brings out the expansion of the road network. Road construction far behind vehicle increase Currently, transportation infrastructure development has not been able to keep up with the significant increase in the number of vehicles in China Fig. Figure 4. The comparison of total length of different types of roads and vehicle sales in China in the period of — Obstacles to improving fuel quality standards Impediments exist in regulating fuel quality standards.

Table 1 The implementation schedule of gasoline fuel standard adapted from Zhang, Table 2 The implementation schedule of automotive diesel fuels standard adapted from Zhang, Fuel standards and vehicle emission standards are not upgraded simultaneously Optimal vehicle emission performance would be achieved if fuel and vehicle emission standards were implemented simultaneously.

The enhanced regulation and management of atmospheric pollution The first milestone is the upgrade of atmospheric pollution related law. Further promote new energy vehicles In recent years, both the central and local governments have issued several policies and regulations concerning the sustainable development of new energy vehicles. Timely upgrade of fuel quality standards and emission standards To date, China has upgraded fuel quality and emission standards to a highly advanced level that exceeds that of many other developing countries.

Toward participatory and transparent governance Since , the MEE has released vehicle emission data every year. Prospects Air pollution associated with the booming expansion of vehicles market and consumption has already received increasing attention from the public.

Why Is Zambia So Poor?

Fuel China should further improve vehicle fuel standards in line with the national refinement of industry conditions. Road Road network planning should be further optimized. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Dr.

References Attfield et al. The diesel exhaust in miners study: a cohort mortality study with emphasis on lung cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute bronchitis in children: season and age as modifiers. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

Effects of vehicle exhaust emissions on urban wild plant species. Environmental Pollution. Che et al. Atmospheric Environment. Cherrie et al. Effectiveness of face masks used to protect Beijing residents against particulate air pollution. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. System dynamics modeling for urban energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: a case study of Beijing, China.